A 20-year-old male underwent an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia after conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation. On day + 6 of the procedure, he developed fever, chills and myalgias. Empiric treatment with ceftazidime and amikacin was begun, and blood cultures grew viridans streptococci. Biochemical changes suggestive of acute rhabdomyolysis were evident. Within 24 h, adult respiratory distress syndrome with multiorgan failure appeared, and he died 7 days later. At autopsy, the presence of rhabdomyolysis was confirmed.

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