Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a complication associated with electrolyte abnormalities that is observed in patients with acute leukemia who are receiving intense doses of chemotherapy. Forty-one patients with acute leukemia were treated with high-dose combination chemotherapy and were evaluated for TLS. A grading system developed for the evaluation of these patients was applied. Grade I tumor lysis was observed in 22 patients, grade II TLS in 2 patients and grade III in 1 patient. All patients were treated with intravenous fluids, mannitol, allopurinol and in some patients, aluminum-based antacids. Treatment for TLS prior to intensive chemotherapy reduced morbidity and mortality associated with high-dose chemotherapy for acute leukemias.

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