We describe 2 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who presented with acute or subacute splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia secondary to disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The patients were treated for immune thrombocytopenic purpura without success. Thrombocytopenia may be a prominent feature of MAC. Our experience suggests that disseminated MAC may present with acute splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia in these patients and that a high index of suspicion for disseminated tuberculosis is indispensable in order to avoid delay in diagnosis and treatment in patients presenting with rapidly progressive splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia.

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