Serum selenium concentration was investigated in 40 children with iron deficiency anemia and in 40 control subjects matched for age, sex and geographical origin. A spectrofluorometric method was used for determination of the selenium level. It was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the patient group, which consisted of both normally developed and malnourished children. Patients also having pica had higher levels of selenium compared to patients without pica. There was no relation between the serum selenium concentration and hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, serum iron, serum iron binding capacity and unsaturated iron binding capacity. However the results of 15 patients followed during iron therapy indicated that the duration of the anemic period may affect the selenium concentration. This study also suggests the effectiveness of iron and selenium administration.