We report a novel chromosomal translocation t(3;17)(q29;q11) in a case with polycythemia vera (PV). The present case (38-year-old male) developed the spent phase of PV after a 10 years’ clinical course and showed excessive proliferation of myeloid cells in the bone marrow. The karyotype analysis of the bone marrow cells showed chromosomal translocation t(3;17)(q29;q11), and the same aberration was detected in the granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-stimulated peripheral blood cells, suggesting the cells with the t(3;17)(q29;q11) showed myeloid differentiation. It is known as well that the retinoic acid receptor gene, which is related with a myeloid disorder, is located in 17q11. Thus, the novel chromosomal translocation could be associated with the pathogenesis of the disorder in this patient.

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