A 19-year-old girl fell ill with a high temperature and cervical lymphadenopathy. The detection of heterophile antibodies as well as Epstein-Barr-virus-specific antibodies confirmed the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis. In the course of the infection, the patient developed severe hemolytic anemia with her hemoglobin falling from 14 to 8 g/dl. High-dose corticosteroid therapy did not stop hemolysis; this could only be achieved by seven plasmapheresis sessions. Antibodies against triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and the blood group marker T were found in the patient’s serum. Anti-i cold agglutinins were not active at 37 °C, whereas antibodies against TPI caused increased 51Cr release from marked patient’s erythrocytes in vitro. Plasmapheresis removed the autoantibodies effectively and stopped the hemolysis. After 8 weeks, the patient gradually recovered.

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