The case of a 13-year-old child with a congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) is reported. A severe anaemia associated with a slight increase in reticulocytes, erythroblastosis, hyperbilirubinaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, generalized oedema and hypoproteinaemia was present at birth. Three exsanguino-transfusions were needed in the first 4 days of life. In the following years a continuous transfusional regimen was maintained in association with a chelating treatment. Bone marrow aspirates showed a striking hyperplasia of the erythroid lineage with ineffective erythropoiesis and changes of erythroblastic nuclei which were double but incompletely separated. Numerous histioerythroblastic islands were also present. Electron microscopy studies did not show specific alterations of the erythropoietic cells. By a long-term evaluation of the clinical signs and of the haematological data, we came to the conclusion that the case does not fit into any of the three classical categories of CDA.