A male, full-term baby with thrombocytopenia was born by a G3P2A1 mother who was not associated with autoimmune disease. Platelet antibody screening was positive by using lymphocytotoxicity test, platelet suspension immunofluorescence test and solid-phase red cell adherence test. The identified HLA antibody was of A2 specificity. It was confirmed by testing the mother’s and the baby’s sera against the lymphocytes and platelets of 10 HLA-A2-positive donors. The possibility of platelet-specific antibody as the cause of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia was ruled out by testing against platelets of 10 HLA-A2-negative donors and the known platelet-specific antigens utilizing immobilized, purified platelet glycoprotein as targets. The mother’s serum reacted strongly with both the father’s and the baby’s platelets and lymphocytes. This neonatal thrombocytopenia was most likely due to the maternal HLA antibody, which was induced by her antecedent gestations.