Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was given concurrently with low-dose cytosine arabinoside for 3 weeks to patients with myelodysplasia. Neutrophil activation as evidenced by increased chemilumines-cence and reduced surface expression of CD16 was consistently seen during therapy. An attendant fall in chemotaxis was also observed. These effects occurred even when neutrophil counts did not rise significantly at lower doses of GM-CSF. Although no improvement in anaemia or thrombocytopenia was observed, the neutrophil counts became normal during therapy without significant expansion of marrow cellularity or colony-forming ability. No major tox-icities were observed, even at higher dosages of GM-CSF.

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