We recently encountered a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who showed temporal monocytosis of an unusually high cell count (5,000-30,000 monocytoid cells/μ1) five times after treatment with different chemotherapies. The leukemic cells expressed B-cell-associated antigens, CD19 and CD10, E-rosette receptor, CD2 and monocyte/myeloid antigen, CD13 simultaneously. They were peroxidase-negative. One week after the initiation of conventional chemotherapy for ALL, the leukemic blasts had disappeared. Alternatively, monocytoid cells appeared along with the recovery from nadir status. They showed several features of monocytes; they were weakly dot-positive for nonspecific esterase, reactive with CD14 and CD13 and Fcγ-receptor-positive. Furthermore, they migrated into a fungally infected joint space. Features incompatible with normal monocytes were the absence of peroxidase reactivity, the expression of B-cell-associated antigens, CD19 and CD10 and E-rosette receptor, CD2. Southern blot hybridization analysis revealed an unexpected result that Hindlll digested DNA from both leukemic blasts and monocytoid cells had the same rearranged band of IgH. Thus, an identical clonality of monocytoid cells, temporally appearing after chemotherapies and leukemic lymphoblasts, was determined in this patient with CD13+ ALL.

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