We report a case of erythrocytosis in a patient with end-stage renal failure on chronic hemodialysis. The patient with polycystic kidney disease had an average Hb level of 10 g/dl while on hemodialysis for 3 years. He developed erythrocytosis (Hb 17.6 g/dl) following a cadaveric renal transplantation. No signs suggesting polycythemia vera were found. Nonrenal causes of secondary erythrocytosis such as anoxia, hemoglobinopathies or tumors were excluded. Angiography showed renal artery occlusion of the native kidney. Serum erythropoietin level was 85 U/l (normal 52 ± 31 U/l) as measured by 3H-thymidine uptake. It is suggested that ischemia caused by the renal artery thrombosis stimulated the erythropoietin production in the native polycystic kidney.

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