Serum levels of immunosuppressive acidic protein (I AP) were measured in patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in order to clarify its significance in this disease. The mean levels in patients with both acute (854 ± 404 μg/ml) and chronic ATL (439 ± 103 μg/ml) were significantly higher than in sera of healthy controls (367 ± 104 μg/ml). However, mean levels in patients with smoldering ATL, healthy T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carriers and healthy controls showed no differences. Levels in crisis in chronic and smoldering ATL were similar to those in patients with acute ATL. Serial measurements of serum I AP in a number of patients revealed that the levels reflected each patient’s clinical course, suggesting a potential for use in evaluating the effects of chemotherapy.

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