Low-dose cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C) induced complete remissions in 6 of 10 patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) who were either refractory to combination chemotherapy with anthracyclines and conventional doses of ARA-C, or were in relapse. Three patients relapsed after 4, 19, and 20 months, whereas 3 patients are still in remission for 8–46 months. Low-dose ARA-C was rather non-toxic and may be preferable to more intensive and toxic regimens in the therapy of refractory and relapsing patients with ANLL.

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