20 patients with acute nonlymphoid leukemia (ANLL) in first remission were given cyclophospha-mide, 120mg/kg, followed by total body irradiation (TBI) and an HLA-identical allogeneic marrow transplant (BMT). TBI was delivered in a single dose (10 Gy on day -1) in 2 patients, or in fractionated doses (3.3 rad/day on days -3, -2, -1) in 18 patients. The median age of patients was 22 years (range 2–44). Median time from remission to BMT was 5 months (range 1–12). 5 patients died of transplant-related toxicity (graft-versus-host disease with or without interstitial pneumonia) and 15 are alive 7–77 months post-BMT (median 20). The actuarial 72 months survival is 73%. There has been one relapse in a 2-year-old child, 4 months post-BMT, in the marrow and in the testis. The 72-month actuarial disease-free survival is 68 %. The actuarial probability of relapse is 7%. This study indicates that a high proportion of ANLL patients treated in first remission with fractionated TBI and allogeneic marrow transplantation can become long-term disease-free survivors

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