A woman affected by acute myeloblastic leukemia was grafted with HLA A, B and D compatible rhesus-positive bone marrow from her brother. Before grafting, she had anti-D alloantibodies (1/512 IAT, 2.9 μ g/ml). To prevent the destruction of donor red blood cells, four plasma exchanges and a conditioning regimen (total-body irradiation 800 rad, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate) were carried out to decrease anti-D from 2.9 to < 0.02 μ g/ml on day 0. The anti-D level was 0.8 μ g/ml on day 12 and was decreased to 0.2 μ g/ml by eight plasma exchanges until day 35. Anti-D antibodies were undetectable with Lalezari’s technique on day 45. Engraftment was obtained on day 25 (3,000 leukocytes/mm3 and 50% erythroblasts in bone marrow). The patient died from aspergillosis and graft-versus-host disease on day 54. This observation shows that an engraftment of rhesus-positive bone marrow in a recipient with anti-D antibody is possible.

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