6 patients with acute leukemia are described. All of them suffered from high temperature and malaise, and showed negative urine and blood cultures. High doses of gentamicin, cephalothin and carbenicillin failed to lower the fever. The temperature became normal after administration of chloramphenicol (CAP) 2.0 g/day. In 3 out of 6 patients the peripheral blood blast cell count decreased following CAP administration. Incubation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells with CAP in vitro showed a marked decrease in the DNA synthesizing activity of the leukemic cells. The role of CAP as an additional tool in the treatment of acute leukemia is discussed.

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