Mononuclear cells (MNC), isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors, were cryoprotected by dimethyl sulfoxide and stored in liquid nitrogen. Colony-stimulating factor (CSF), produced by cryopreserved MNC, was compared with that of nonfrozen controls in a double-layer agar system with human bone marrow as target cells. Our results indicate that cryopreserved MNC retain their ability to stimulate myelopoiesis-committed stem cells after freezing. In addition, evidence was obtained that CSF of feeder layers changes, depending on the duration of preincubation and cell concentration. In a system where either stimulating or target cells are cryopreserved the dynamics of interactions between normal or abnormal cell lines can thus be studied.