Arabs living near the Sea of Galilee were found to be homozygous for hemoglobin S. Studies of solubility, mechanical precipitability, electrophoretic mobility on starch-gel and citrate agar media, minimum gelling concentration, and peptide mapping of the hemoglobin β-chain confirmed complete identity of the hemoglobin with that found in Afro-American hemoglobin S homozygotes. A comparison of Arab Hb S homozygotes with Afro-American Hb S patients showed no significant differences in hemoglobin levels, red cell indices or morphology. Hb F averaged 4.4% in Arab patients. The 2,3 diphosphoglycerate levels were increased approximately twofold in Arabs, whereas in Afro-Americans, it was increased by only 7% in females and 20% in males.

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