Studies have been carried out on B and T cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood from patients with paraproteinaemia. The peripheral blood of patients with multiple myeloma showed a significant increase of B cells, mainly lymphoid cells bearing immunoglobulins corresponding to the paraproteins, while in patients with benign monoclonal gammopathy only a slight increase of B cells and a moderate decrease of T cells have been found. As to the bone marrow, the B cell population was significantly raised in patients with multiple myeloma, but it remained unchanged in patients with benign monoclonal gammopathy. Our findings may offer a new possibility to distinguish between these two diseases and provide further data to their pathogenesis.

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