Aplasia was induced in rats by total body irradiation. Three days later, the animal was conjugated by aortic anastomoses with a healthy untreated littermate. 6 h after parabiosis, the bone marrow of irradiated animals contained some granulocytes showing RNA synthesis. At 18 h, many myelocytes and promyelocytes were present but no myeloblast was encountered. These myeloid precursor cells showed active DNA synthesis but no mitoses, and no erythroblasts were observed at this time period. At 24 h, mitoses of myeloblasts were found. At 42–60 h, erythropoiesis was evident. Chromosome analysis and investigations of cells of irradiated parabionts conjugated with partners having labeled cells, revealed that these newly formed myeloid and erythroid cells originated from the untreated parabiont. The mechanism of triggering myelopoiesis in the aplastic bone marrow by parabiosis is discussed.

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