Newborns were examined for the presence of slow-moving haemoglobin components, tentatively designated X components and previously found in a group of Hb H disease in which invariably one of the parents of each patient had the same slow-moving Hb X components also. Structural studies showed that the abnormal haemoglobin in Chinese was. identical with Hb Constant Spring, an α-chain variant. Newborns with Hb Bart’s and slow-moving X components invariably had one parent with the X components also. When the child grew older Hb Bart’s disappeared while the Hb X components remained in the blood. The homozygous state for the X components was found in a Malay boy through his newborn brother who had the X components in addition to Hb Bart’s and had both parents with the X components. One other Malay baby had the X components and Hb A2 Indonesia inherited from the parents. The present study of newborns also showed that Hb Bart’s can accompany different abnormalities of haemoglobin production, involving α-chains, β-chains as well as γ-chains. Its presence in cord blood is, therefore, not specific for α-thalassaemia.