Acute diarrhea is a common and debilitating complication in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). In this prospective, observational, and multicenter study we examined all episodes occurring in the first 6 months of 142 consecutive adult patients who underwent a reduced-intensity conditioning HCT in 10 Spanish tertiary university hospitals. Fifty-four patients (38%) developed a total of 75 acute diarrhea episodes. The median time from HCT to the first episode was 38 days (4–157). The main cause of enterocolitis was lower GI-aGVHD (38%), followed by infections (21%) and drug-related toxicity (8%). Causative infectious causes were identified in only 16/75 episodes (21%). C. difficile-related infection was the most common infectious agent with an incidence and recurrence of 13% and 2%, respectively. With a median follow-up for survivors of 32 months, the non-relapse mortality (NRM) and the overall survival (OS) at 1 year, were 20% (95% C.I.: 14–28%) and 69% (95% C.I.: 61–77%), respectively. Development of enterocolitis was not associated with higher NRM (p = 0.37) or worse OS (p = 0.9). This real-life study confirms that the diagnosis and management of acute diarrhea in the early stages after HCT is challenging. Nosocomial infections seem to be relatively uncommon, probably due to more rational use of antibiotics.

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