Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare neurological disease caused by the reactivation of latent John Cunningham polyomavirus. Hematological disorders associated with immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are risk factors for PML. Blinatumomab is a novel antileukemic immunomodulatory agent and more effective for relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) than conventional chemotherapy. But, blinatumomab suppresses humoral immunity due to long-lasting B-cell depletion during and after the treatment. The development of PML involves cellular immunity and impairment of humoral immunity. Although few cases of blinatumomab-related PML have been reported, the use of blinatumomab after allogeneic HSCT may increase the risk of developing PML. The current case report presents a patient of Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL wherein PML developed after cord blood stem cell transplantation and administrating blinatumomab.

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