Programmed cell death (PD)/PD-ligands (PD-Ls) pathway plays an important role in the regulation of physiologic immune response. Several cancers, including lymphoma exhibit abnormal PD-1/PD-Ls expression, which may contribute to treatment failure, progression, and inferior outcomes. PD-1/PD-Ls expression has predominantly been described in B-cell lymphoma; such data in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is limited. We described PD-1/PD-Ls expression patterns and associations with clinical characteristics and outcomes, in patients with systemic PTCLs. Correlation between PD-1/PD-Ls expression and outcomes was analyzed in patients who received lymphoma-specific therapy. PD-1/PD-Ls expression was observed across all common PTCL histologies at different proportions (PD-1 0%–76.9%, PD-L1 38.5%–62.5%, and PD-L2 62.5%–100%) with PD-1 being highly expressed in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Baseline characteristics were comparable between PD-1/PD-Ls expression status. Of 47 patients who received lymphoma-specific therapy, outcomes were similar across all PD-L1/PD-L2 subgroups. In the Cox proportional hazard analysis, treatment response was the only factor associated with survival outcomes. However, PD-1/PD-Ls expression, either in lymphoma or stroma, was not a predictor for survival outcomes. In conclusion, differential PD-1/PD-Ls expressions were observed among various histological PTCL subtypes. In this study, we were unable to demonstrate an association between PD-1/PD-Ls expression, clinical characteristics, treatment response, and outcomes of PTCL patients.

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