Moyamoya syndrome increases the risk of stroke in sickle cell disease, but revascularization surgery can modify this risk. Collaborative management between hematology and neurosurgery offers effective strategies to reduce stroke risk in these patients. We describe a challenging case where a patient with sickle cell disease undergoing standard of care management as prescribed by the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia and revascularization with pial synangiosis subsequently developed rapidly progressive disease in other cerebral vessels and suffered ischemic hemispheric stroke. This case not only demonstrates the success of management in accordance with the American Heart Association (AHA) and American Stroke Association (ASA) guidelines but also demonstrates critical areas where we lack understanding of disease progression.

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