Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) can potentially occur after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) if recipient and donor ABO blood groups are mismatched, with the recipient having isoagglutinins against the donor blood group. Patient plasma cells that survive transplant conditioning produce anti-ABO isoagglutinins targeting donor erythroid precursors in the bone marrow and thus causing red cell aplasia. Therapeutic options include steroids, discontinuation of immunosuppression, plasmapheresis, donor lymphocyte infusion, rituximab, and bortezomib, all with limited benefit. Daratumumab utilized in the treatment of multiple myeloma is an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody targeting plasma cells, which makes it a potentially efficient therapy for PRCA. The current case report presents a patient with post-allo-HSCT PRCA cured with daratumumab applied after failure of other therapies. Our findings demonstrate safety and high efficiency of daratumumab, suggesting its applicability as early treatment of post-allo-HSCT PRCA.

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