Introduction: This study aimed to identify genetic predictors of treatment response and survival in patients with myeloid neoplasms treated with hypomethylating agents (HMAs). Methods: We performed next-generation sequencing on bone marrow aspiration samples of 59 patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts-2, or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and treated with decitabine or azacitidine as a frontline therapy. Results: A single gene with the most common mutations was TP53 (14 of 59 patients), and mutations in RAS pathway-related genes including KRAS, NRAS, FLT3, PTPN11, CBL, and KIT were found in 28.8% of patients. The overall response rate to HMAs was 33.9%. Predictive factors for a poor response were an age >75 years (p = 0.007), 3 or more gene mutations (p = 0.004), mutations in RAS pathway-related genes (p = 0.033), and a mutated NRAS gene (p = 0.042). An age >75 years (hazard ratio 2.946), diagnosis of AML (hazard ratio 2.915), and mutations in NRAS (hazard ratio 4.440) were identified as poor prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion: In conclusion, mutations in RAS pathway-related genes were predictors of a poor response to HMAs. Particularly, mutated NRAS was associated with inferior survival rates.

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