Differentiating the aetiology of thrombocytosis is limited yet crucial in patients with essential thrombocythaemia (ET). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate haematopoiesis and lineage commitment; aberrant expression of miRNAs plays an important role in myeloproliferative neoplasms. However, the miRNA profile has been poorly explored in ET patients compared to patients with reactive thrombocytosis (RT). A total of 9 samples, including 5 ET patient samples, 2 RT patient samples, and 2 healthy control samples, were analysed in this study. We produced 81.43 million reads from transcripts and 59.60 million reads from small RNAs. We generated a comprehensive miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and identified unique 14 miRNA expression patterns associated with ET. Among the 14 miRNAs, miR-1268a was downregulated in ET and showed an inverse correlation with its 8 putative target genes, including genes associated with thrombus formation and platelet activation (CDH6, EHD2, FUT1, KIF26A, LINC00346, PTPRN, SERF1A, and SLC6A9). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed ET and non-ET groups well clustered in space, suggesting each group had a distinctive expression pattern of mRNAs and miRNAs. These results suggest that the significant dysregulation of miR-1268a and its 8 target genes could be a unique expression of platelet mi-RNAs and miRNA/mRNA regulatory network in ET patients.