Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a rare lymphoma belonging to the marginal zone lymphoproliferative disorders. Usually, SMZL occurs with indolent presentation and, when required, the standard of care is represented by rituximab-based regimens. No direct comparison of different rituximab-based combinations and polychemotherapy regimens has been conducted to date. In a monocentric cohort of 68 SMLZ patients, we showed that rituximab in monotherapy or in combination with bendamustine, compared with rituximab associated with the polychemotherapy cycle cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (CHOP), resulted in a higher 5-year progression-free survival (91.3 ± 9% and 75 ± 15.7% vs. 30.8 ± 12.1%, p < 0.001). Platelets at diagnosis <100 ×109/L (p = 0.034, HR = 4.3) and transformation into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (p = 0.031, HR = 4.3) were associated with a lower overall survival.

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