Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare, malignant, and aggressive subtype of histiocytosis. We present an unusual case of aggressive HS presenting in the gastrointestinal tract and gallbladder that progressed after several lines of chemotherapy with a leukemic phase. We review the clinical, pathological, and molecular characteristics of HS in this case and review the literature on HS involving the digestive system as well as on overt leukemic phase of this disease. HS is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, and mortality is high. We discuss the therapeutic approach to patients with HS. We highlight the role of overexpression and somatic alterations in the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway in the pathogenesis of HS and discuss potential targeted approaches to treat these rare tumors.

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