Initial treatment with the monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab induces responses in the majority of patients with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL). In eligible patients, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an option to consolidate hematological remissions. Here, we report our experience with 10 patients who received allo-HSCT against T-PLL. Notably, 3 patients with complete remission at transplantation and durable full-donor chimerism relapsed at months 12, 59, and 84 after transplantation, respectively. This relapse was associated with rapid progressive leukemia in 1 patient and extralymphatic lymphoma growth in the other 2. Despite CD52 positivity at relapse, alemtuzumab retreatment, donor lymphocyte infusions, and/or chemotherapy including salvage therapy, allo-HSCT yielded a transient partial response, only. Alemtuzumab induction and consolidative allo-HSCT enabled prolonged disease-free survival in these patients but failed to procure cure.

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