Background: The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in haematological malignancies varies according to the type and grade of the disease and clinical variables, and there is a need to develop a tool to predict the occurrence of VTE in cancer patients at diagnosis to tailor prophylactic anticoagulation use during treatment. Objective: To study the incidence of VTE in haematological malignancies and clarify whether vascular and inflammatory biomarkers could be used as predictors of VTE in those patients. Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study. Hypercoagulability and inflammatory biomarkers were assayed in a group of 171 patients with haematological malignancies at diagnosis. These markers included (1) coagulation and fibrinolysis activation markers (D-dimer, fibrinogen, antithrombin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), (2) endothelial and platelet activation markers (von Willebrand factor and soluble P-selectin), and (3) inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor αand interleukin 6). The end point was mortality or symptomatic VTE. Results/Conclusion: The incidence of symptomatic VTE was 7%. None of the tested biomarkers showed statistical significance as predictors for the occurrence of VTE in haematological malignancies. However, there were statistically significant associations between the occurrence of VTE and central venous access device insertion, the prothrombin time, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. An ESR above 106.5 mm/h is associated with increased VTE occurrence.

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