Autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura, have been described in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) after immunochemotherapy. However, the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. We examined NHL patients with autoimmune cytopenia and all patients were treated with rituximab-containing therapy. The present results showed reversed imbalances in helper/suppressor T-cell populations, and an immune system imbalance may have contributed to immunological abnormalities. Although the relationship between imbalances in helper/suppressor T-cell populations and the development of auto-antibody production after chemotherapies currently remains unclear, the immunosuppressive effects of immunochemotherapy may be a contributing factor. The long-term monitoring of T-cell populations after immunochemotherapies is important.

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