Objectives: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the risk of clonal evolution of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in acquired aplastic anemia (AA), and whether the use of G-CSF increases the occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasms, mainly myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Methods: Data were gathered from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of G-CSF versus no G-CSF at the risk of developing the clonal complications of acquired AA. Electronic searches in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were performed to identify studies up to 1 January 2017. Only RCTs performed on patients who were randomly assigned to receive G-CSF or not to receive G-CSF were included. Results: Four relevant trials that met the inclusion criteria were identified. In a pooled analysis, the G-CSF groups of AA patients were not associated with a statistically significant higher occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasm, mainly MDS and AML (relative risk [RR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34–2.19; 4 trials). No significant heterogeneity was found (p = 0.67, I2 = 0%). There was no statistically significant higher occurrence of PNH in the G-CSF groups with AA (RR 1.17; 95% CI 0.51–2.71; 4 trials) and no significant heterogeneity was found (p = 0.42, I2 = 0%). Conclusions: G-CSF for patients with AA is not associated with a higher occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasm, mainly MDS/AML, or PNH.

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