Background: The second-generation CD19-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T co-stimulatory domain that is commonly used in clinical practice is CD28 or 4-1BB. Previous studies have shown that the persistence of CAR-T in the 4-1BB co-stimulatory domain appears to be longer. Methods: The expression profile data of GSE65856 were obtained from GEO database. After data preprocessing, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the mock CAR versus CD19-28z CAR T cells and mock CAR versus CD19-BBz CAR T cells were identified using the limma package. Subsequently, functional enrichment analysis of DEGs was performed using the DAVID tool. Then, the protein-protein international (PPI) network of these DEGs was visualized by Cytoscape, and the miRNA-target gene-disease regulatory networks were predicted using Webgestal. Results: A total of 18 common DEGs, 6 CD19-28z specific DEGs and 206 CD19-BBz specific DEGs were identified. Among CD19-28z specific DEGs, down-regulated PAX5 might be an important node in the PPI network and could be targeted by miR-496. In CD19-BBz group, JUN was a hub node in the PPI network and involved in the regulations of miR520D – early growth response gene 3 (EGR3)-JUN and mi-R489-AT-rich interaction domain 5A (ARID5A)-JUN networks. Conclusion: The 4-1BB co-stimulatory domain might play in important role in the treatment of CAR-T via miR-520D-EGR3-JUN and miR489-ARID5A-JUN regulation network, while CD28 had a negative effect on CAR-T treatment.

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