Background: Certain nuclear envelope proteins are associated with important cancer cell characteristics, including migration and proliferation. Abnormal expression of and genetic changes in nuclear envelope proteins have been reported in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18), a nuclear envelope protein, is involved in neural stem cell migration and tumorigenicity. Methods: To examine the prognostic significance of TMEM18 in AML patients, we analyzed an AML cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, n = 142). Results: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that TMEM18 overexpression was associated with a better AML prognosis with good discrimination (p = 0.019). Interestingly, this ability to predict the prognosis was significant in male AML patients, but not in female ones. C-index and area-under-the-curve analyses further supported this discriminative ability and multivariate analysis confirmed its prognostic significance (p = 0.00347). Correlation analysis revealed that TMEM18 had a statistically significant positive correlation with nuclear envelop protein 133 (NUP133), NUP35, NUP54, NUP62, and NUP88. Conclusion: Because the current AML prognostic factors do not take mRNA expression into consideration unlike other cancers, the development of mRNA-based prognostic factors would be beneficial for accurate prediction of the survival of AML patients. Therefore, TMEM18 gene is a potential biomarker for AML.

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