Background: Direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-negative warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is mainly caused by three mechanisms: red blood cell (RBC)-bound immunoglobulin (Ig)G below the detection limit of routine DAT; RBC-bound IgA or IgM; or low-affinity autoantibodies. Although most cases of DAT-negative AIHA are thought to be caused by RBC-bound IgG, and combinatory serological analyses are recommended, the relative ratios of each mechanism have not been clarified. Methods: Two groups of patients with undiagnosed hemolytic anemia and negative conventional tube method-DAT (TM-DAT) were investigated using anti-IgA and anti-IgM sera, or column agglutination method-DAT (CM-DAT), respectively, in addition to radioimmunological quantitation of RBC-bound IgG. Results: Three of 73 patients with DAT-negative AIHA showed positive RBC-bound IgA and normal amounts of RBC-bound IgG. Another group of 3 patients were RBC-bound IgM-positive, but only one of these showed normal amounts of RBC-bound IgG. In another group of patients with DAT-negative AIHA, 4 of the 20 showed positive CM-DAT and negative CM-DAT after washing RBCs. Three of these patients had normal amounts of RBC-bound IgG. Five patients with positive CM-DAT both before and after washing RBCs had high amounts of RBC-bound IgG. Conclusion: Relative ratios of patients with DAT-negative AIHA resulting from RBC-bound IgG, RBC-bound IgA, RBC-bound IgM, and low-affinity IgG were estimated as 80, 4, 1 and 15%, respectively. A new classification and diagnostic algorithm for DAT-negative AIHA were proposed.

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.