Background: Immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma (IgD MM) is characterized by a poor prognosis. Data are lacking on the survival benefits associated with the use of novel agents followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in IgD MM patients. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of induction treatment with novel agents followed by ASCT. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study of 22 IgD MM patients who underwent ASCT between 1995 and 2016. Of these, 10 (45.4%) received novel agents and 12 (54.6%) received nonnovel agents. Clinical features and survival outcomes were examined. Results: Median overall survival (OS) was 37.7 months in the 22 patients. Those in the novel-agents group received bortezomib or thalidomide-based regimens, whereas 91.7% of the nonnovel-agents group received a vincristine-based regimen. The median progression-free survival and OS in the novel-agent/nonnovel-agent groups were 8.3/7.4 and 38.6/12.5 months, respectively. The median OS of patients receiving maintenance therapy was not reached. Conclusion: This study showed improved survival outcomes compared to our previous study (37.7 vs. 12 months), suggesting that the use of a novel agent as induction and maintenance therapy may be beneficial in patients with IgD MM who undergo ASCT.

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