Background: Autoimmune myelofibrosis (AIMF) is an underrecognized cause of nonmalignant bone marrow fibrosis which occurs in the presence or absence of a defined systemic autoimmune disease. Patients with AIMF present with cytopenias and autoantibodies, and have a distinctive nonclonal myelofibrosis on bone marrow examination. AIMF is distinguished from primary myelofibrosis by the absence of splenomegaly, eosinophilia, or basophilia, and the absence of abnormal myeloid, erythroid, or megakaryocytic morphology. Objectives: The objective of the study was to describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with AIMF. Methods: We conducted a single-institution, retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with AIMF to investigate clinical presentations, therapies, and outcomes. Results: Twelve patients with AIMF were identified with a mean follow-up of 5.8 years. All patients had detectable autoantibodies and the majority had concomitant autoimmune disorders. Four patients experienced a complete response of cytopenias and 3 patients experienced a partial response (PR) of cytopenias with immunosuppressive therapy. One patient achieved a PR following splenectomy. No patients were diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasms during the follow-up period. Conclusions: AIMF contributes to cytopenias in the subset of patients with various autoimmune disorders. The majority of patients with AIMF experience an improvement in cytopenias with immunosuppressive therapy.

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