Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare histiocytosis typically with bilateral painless cervical lymphadenopathy. Laboratory data are nonspecific, and the presence of emperipolesis in large foamy S-100+ CD1a- histiocytes is the prominent histologic feature. The pathogenesis of RDD still remains elusive. According to published studies, we propose that RDD cells might represent intermediate recruiting monocytes with differentiation blockade. Both disturbance of homoeostasis and inherent genomic alterations could contribute to initiation of the disorder through signal transduction. Several inflammatory molecules such as macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α also play a pivotal role in the development of this rare entity. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the essence of the disease.

1.
Rosai J, Dorfman RF: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. A newly recognized benign clinicopathological entity. Arch Pathol 1969;87:63-70.
2.
Middel P, Hemmerlein B, Fayyazi A, Kaboth U, Radzun HJ: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: evidence for its relationship to macrophages and for a cytokine-related disorder. Histopathology 1999;35:525-533.
3.
Foucar E, Rosai J, Dorfman R: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): review of the entity. Semin Diagn Pathol 1990;7:19-73.
4.
Rosai J, Dorfman RF: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: a pseudolymphomatous benign disorder. Analysis of 34 cases. Cancer 1972;30:1174-1188.
5.
Huang Q, Chang KL, Weiss LM: Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease involving the bone marrow: a case report. Am J Surg Pathol 2006;30:1189-1192.
6.
Carbone A, Passannante A, Gloghini A, Devaney KO, Rinaldo A, Ferlito A: Review of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) of head and neck. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1999;108(pt 1):1095-1104.
7.
Zaveri J, La Q, Yarmish G, Neuman J: More than just Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a radiologic review of histiocytic disorders. Radiographics 2014;34:2008-2024.
8.
Dhull VS, Passah A, Rana N, Kaur K, Tripathi M, Kumar R: 18F-FDG PET/CT of widespread Rosai-Dorfman disease. Clin Nucl Med 2016;41:57-59.
9.
Foucar E, Rosai J, Dorfman RF, Eyman JM: Immunologic abnormalities and their significance in sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. Am J Clin Pathol 1984;82:515-525.
10.
Foucar E, Rosai J, Dorfman RF: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. An analysis of 14 deaths occurring in a patient registry. Cancer 1984;54:1834-1840.
11.
Maennle DL, Grierson HL, Gnarra DG, Weisenburger DD: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: a spectrum of disease associated with immune dysfunction. Pediatr Pathol 1991;11:399-412.
12.
Bonetti F, Chilosi M, Menestrina F, Scarpa A, Pelicci PG, Amorosi E, Fiore-Donati L, Knowles DM 2nd: Immunohistological analysis of Rosai-Dorfman histiocytosis. A disease of S-100+ CD1- histiocytes. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 1987;411:129-135.
13.
Paulli M, Bergamaschi G, Tonon L, Viglio A, Rosso R, Facchetti F, Geerts ML, Magrini U, Cazzola M: Evidence for a polyclonal nature of the cell infiltrate in sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease). Br J Hematol 1995;191:415-418.
14.
Remadi S, Anagnostopoulou ID, Jlidi R, Cox JN, Seemayer TA: Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease in childhood. Pathol Res Pract 1996;192:1007-1015.
15.
Paulli M, Rosso R, Kindl S, Boveri E, Marocolo D, Chioda C, Agostini C, Magrini U, Facchetti F: Immunophenotypic characterization of the cell infiltrate in five case of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease). Hum Pathol 1992;23:647-654.
16.
Wenig BM, Abbondanzo SL, Childers EL, Kapadia SB, Heffner DR: Extranodal sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) of the head and neck. Hum Pathol 1993;24:483-492.
17.
Gaitonde S: Multifocal, extranodal sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: an overview. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2007;131:1117-1121.
18.
Paulli M, Locatelli F, Kindl S, Boveri E, Facchetti F, Porta F, Rosso R, Nespoli L, Magrini U: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphoadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease). Clinico-pathological analysis of a paediatric case. Eur J Pediatr 1992;151:672-675.
19.
Eisen RN, Buckley PJ, Rosai J: Immunophenotypic characterization of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease). Semin Diagn Pathol 1990;7:74-82.
20.
Deshpande AH, Nayak S, Munshi MM: Cytology of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease). Diagn Cytopathol 2000;22:181-185.
21.
Pettinato G, Manivel JC, d'Amore ES, Petrella G: Fine needle aspiration cytology and immunocytochemical characterization of the histiocytes in sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman syndrome). Acta Cytol 1990;34:771-777.
22.
Paulli M, Boveri E, Rosso R, Magrini U, Solcia E, Feller AC, Merz H, Kindl S, Berti E, Facchetti F, Gambini C, Bonetti F, Geerts ML, Möller P, Samloff M: Cathepsin D and E co-expression in sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis: further evidences [sic!] of a phenotypic overlap between these histiocytic disorders. Virchows Arch 1994;424:601-606.
23.
Pulsoni A, Anghel G, Falcucci P, Matera R, Pescarmona E, Ribersani M, Villivà N, Mandelli F: Treatment of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): report of a case and literature review. Am J Hematol 2002;69:67-71.
24.
Antonius JI, Farid SM, Baez-Giangreco A: Steroid-responsive Rosai-Dorfman disease. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1996;13:563-570.
25.
Safiye Y, Melih T, Ahmet M, Mine T: Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease with bilateral orbital involvement: report of a case treated with systemic steroid alone. Clin Ophthalmol 2008;2:479-481.
26.
Vemuganti GK, Naik MN, Honavar SG: Rosai Dorfman disease of the orbit. J Hematol Oncol 2008;1:7.
27.
Komp DM: The treatment of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease). Semin Diagn Pathol 1990;7:83-86.
28.
Palomera L, Domingo JM, Olave T, Romero S, Gutiérrez M: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: complete response to low-dose interferon-alpha. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:2176.
29.
Childs HA 3rd, Kim RY: Radiation response of Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting with involvement of the orbits. Am J Clin Oncol 1999;22:526-528.
30.
Cooper SL, Chavis PS, Fortney JA, Watkins JM, Caplan MJ, Jenrette JM 3rd: A case of orbital Rosai-Dorfman disease responding to radiotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2008;30:744-748.
31.
Zimmerman LE, Hidayat AA, Grantham RL, Chavis RM, Stopak SS, Dreizen NG, O'Neill JF: Atypical cases of sinus histiocytosis (Rosai-Dorfman disease) with ophthalmological manifestations. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1988;86:113-135.
32.
Hume DA: Macrophages as APC and the dendritic cell myth. J Immunol 2008;181:5829-5835.
33.
Lagasse E, Weissman IL: Mouse MRP8 and MRP14, two intracellular calcium-binding proteins associated with the development of the myeloid lineage. Blood 1992;79:1907-1915.
34.
Eue I, Pietz B, Storck J, Klempt M, Sorg C: Transendothelial migration of 27E10+ human monocytes. Int Immunol 2000;12:1593-1604.
35.
Quaglino P, Tomasini C, Novelli M, Colonna S, Bernengo MG: Immunohistologic findings and adhesion molecule pattern in primary pure cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease with xanthomatous features. Am J Dermatopathol 1998;20:393-398.
36.
Lagasse E, Clerc RG: Cloning and expression of two human genes encoding calcium-binding proteins that are regulated during myeloid differentiation. Mol Cell Biol 1988;8:2402-2410.
37.
Goebeler M, Roth J, Henseleit U, Sunderkötter C, Sorg C: Expression and complex assembly of calcium-binding proteins MRP8 and MRP14 during differentiation of murine myelomonocytic cells. J Leukoc Biol 1993;53:11-18.
38.
Zwadlo G, Brüggen J, Gerhards G, Schlegel R, Sorg C: Two calcium-binding proteins associated with specific stages of myeloid cell differentiation are expressed by subsets of macrophages in inflammatory tissues. Clin Exp Immunol 1988;72:510-515.
39.
Averill MM, Barnhart S, Becker L, Li X, Heinecke JW, Leboeuf RC, Hamerman JA, Sorg C, Kerkhoff C, Bornfeldt KE: S100A9 differentially modifies phenotypic states of neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells: implications for atherosclerosis and adipose tissue inflammation. Circulation 2011;123:1216-1226.
40.
Leirião P, del Fresno C, Ardavín C: Monocytes as effector cells: activated Ly-6Chigh mouse monocytes migrate to the lymph nodes through the lymph and cross-present antigens to CD8+ T cells. Eur J Immunol 2012;42:2042-2051.
41.
Jakubzick C, Gautier EL, Gibbings SL, Sojka DK, Schlitzer A, Johnson TE, Ivanov S, Duan Q, Bala S, Condon T, van Rooijen N, Grainger JR, Belkaid Y, Ma'ayan A, Riches DW, Yokoyama WM, Ginhoux F, Henson PM, Randolph GJ: Minimal differentiation of classical monocytes as they survey steady-state tissues and transport antigen to lymph nodes. Immunity 2013;39:599-610.
42.
Reid FM, Sandilands GP, Gray KG, Anderson JR: Lymphocyte emperipolesis revisited. II. Further characterization of the lymphocyte subpopulation involved. Immunology 1979;36:367-372.
43.
Mir R, Aftalion B, Kahn LB: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy and unusual extranodal manifestation. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1985;109:867-870.
44.
Iyer VK, Handa KK, Sharma MC: Variable extent of emperipolesis in the evolution of Rosai Dorfman disease: diagnostic and pathogenetic implications. J Cytol 2009;26:111-116.
45.
Kumari JO: Coexistence of rhinoscleroma with Rosai-Dorfman disease: is rhinoscleroma a cause of this disease? J Laryngol Otol 2012;126:630-632.
46.
Al-Daraji W, Anandan A, Klassen-Fischer M, Auerbach A, Marwaha JS, Fanburg-Smith JC: Soft tissue Rosai-Dorfman disease: 29 new lesions in 18 patients, with detection of polyomavirus antigen in 3 abdominal cases. Ann Diagn Pathol 2010;14:309-316.
47.
Lober M, Rawlings W, Newell GR, Reed RJ: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. Report of a case associated with elevated EBV antibody titers. Cancer 1973;32:421-425.
48.
Harley EH: Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) in a patient with elevated Epstein-Barr virus titer. J Natl Med Assoc 1991;83:922-924.
49.
Mehraein Y, Wagner M, Remberger K, Fuzesi L, Middel P, Kaptur S, Schmitt K, Meese E: Parvovirus B19 detected in Rosai-Dorfman disease in nodal and extranodal manifestations. J Clin Pathol 2006;59:1320-1326.
50.
Levine PH, Jahan N, Murari P, Manak M, Jaffe ES: Detection of human herpesvirus 6 in tissues involved by sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease). J Infect Dis 1992;166:291-295.
51.
Monroe AK, Burkholder BM, Butler NJ, Duffield AS: Sclerouveitis associated with Rosai-Dorfman disease in an HIV-infected patient. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2014;22:236-238.
52.
Akria L, Sonkin V, Braester A, Cohen HI, Suriu C, Polliack A: Rare coexistence of Rosai-Dorfman disease and nodal marginal zone lymphoma complicated by severe life-threatening autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Leuk Lymphoma 2013;54:1553-1556.
53.
Grabczynska SA, Toh CT, Francis N, Costello C, Bunker CB: Rosai-Dorfman disease complicated by autoimmune haemolytic anaemia: case report and review of a multisystem disease with cutaneous infiltrates. Br J Dermatol 2001;145:323-326.
54.
Cohen-Barak E, Rozenman D, Schafer J, Krausz J, Dodiuk-Gad R, Gabriel H, Shani-Adir A: An unusual co-occurrence of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Rosai-Dorfman disease: report of a case and review of the literature. Int J Dermatol 2014;53:558-563.
55.
Röcken C, Wieker K, Grote H-J, Müller G, Franke A, Roessner A: Rosai-Dorfman disease and generalized AA amyloidosis: a case report. Hum Pathol 2000;31:621-624.
56.
Chen TD, Lee LY: Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting in the parotid gland with features of IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2011;137:705-708.
57.
Kaur PP, Birbe RC, DeHoratius RJ: Rosai-Dorfman disease in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2005;32:951-953.
58.
Jöhrens K, Anagnostopoulos I, Dürkop H, Stein H: Different T-bet expression patterns characterize particular reactive lymphoid tissue lesions. Histopathology 2006;48:343-352.
59.
Matsuki E, Younes A: Lymphomagenesis in Hodgkin lymphoma. Semin Cancer Biol 2015;34:14-21.
60.
Scott DW, Gascoyne RD: The tumour microenvironment in B cell lymphomas. Nat Rev Cancer 2014;14:517-534.
61.
Egeler RM, van Halteren AG, Hogendoorn PC, Laman JD, Leenen PJ: Langerhans cell histiocytosis: fascinating dynamics of the dendritic cell-macrophage lineage. Immunol Rev 2010;234:213-232.
62.
Lazarevic V, Glimcher LH, Lord GM: T-bet: a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 2013;13:777-789.
63.
Gruber MF, Webb DS, Gerrard TL: Stimulation of human monocytes via CD45, CD44, and LFA-3 triggers macrophage-colony-stimulating factor production. Synergism with lipopolysaccharide and IL-1β. J Immunol 1992;148:1113-1118.
64.
Ji XH, Sun LH, Qin JC, Yao K, Ding RN, Li HD, Zhu DX: Effects of rhM-CSF expressed in silkworm on cytokine productions and membrane molecule expressions of human monocytes. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2000;21:797-801.
65.
Foss HD, Herbst H, Araujo I, Hummel M, Berg E, Schmitt-Gräff A, Stein H: Monokine expression in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis and sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease). J Pathol 1996;179:60-65.
66.
Na YR, Hong JH, Lee MY, Jung JH, Jung D, Kim YW, Son D, Choi M, Kim KP, Seok SH 2nd: Proteomic analysis reveals distinct metabolic differences between granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) grown macrophages derived from murine bone marrow cells. Mol Cell Proteomics 2015;14:2722-2732.
67.
Jadus MR, Sekhon S, Barton BE, Wepsic HT: Macrophage colony stimulating factor-activating bone marrow macrophages suppress lymphocytic responses through phagocytosis: a tentative in vitro model of Rosai-Dorfman disease. J Leukoc Biol 1995;57:936-942.
68.
Hamilton JA: CSF-1 signal transduction. J Leukoc Biol 1997;62:145-155.
69.
Pixley FJ, Stanley ER: CSF-1 regulation of the wandering macrophage: complexity in action. Trends Cell Biol 2004;14:628-638.
70.
Weichhart T, Hengstschläger M, Linke M: Regulation of innate immune cell function by mTOR. Nat Rev Immunol 2015;15:599-614.
71.
Wang H, Brown J, Gu Z, Garcia CA, Liang R, Alard P, Beurel E, Jope RS, Greenway T, Martin M: Convergence of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1- and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β-signaling pathways regulates the innate inflammatory response. J Immunol 2011;186:5217-5226.
72.
Ponticos M, Papaioannou I, Xu S, Holmes AM, Khan K, Denton CP, Bou-Gharios G, Abraham DJ: Failed degradation of JunB contributes to overproduction of type I collagen and development of dermal fibrosis in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheumatol 2015;67:243-253.
73.
Al-Khouri AM, Ma Y, Togo SH, Williams S, Mustelin T: Cooperative phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) by casein kinases and glycogen synthase kinase 3β. J Biol Chem 2005;280:35195-35202.
74.
Kim JY, Kim YM, Yang CH, Cho SK, Lee JW, Cho M: Functional regulation of Slug/Snail2 is dependent on GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation. FEBS J 2012;279:2929-2939.
75.
Zhou BP, Deng J, Xia W, Xu J, Li YM, Gunduz M, Hung MC: Dual regulation of Snail by GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation in control of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Nat Cell Biol 2004;6:931-940.
76.
Wang H, Brown J, Martin M: Glycogen synthase kinase 3: a point of convergence for the host inflammatory response. Cytokine 2011;53:130-140.
77.
Lee AW, States DJ: Both Src-dependent and -independent mechanisms mediate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulation of colony-stimulating factor 1-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases in myeloid progenitors. Mol Cell Biol 2000;20:6779-6798.
78.
Okkenhaug K: Signaling by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase family in immune cells. Annu Rev Immunol 2013;31:675-704.
79.
Papakonstanti EA, Zwaenepoel O, Bilancio A, Burns E, Nock GE, Houseman B, Shokat K, Ridley AJ, Vanhaesebroeck B: Distinct roles of class IA PI3K isoforms in primary and immortalised macrophages. J Cell Sc 2008;121:4124-4133.
80.
Papakonstanti EA, Ridley AJ, Vanhaesebroeck B: The p110δ isoform of PI 3-kinase negatively controls RhoA and PTEN. EMBO J 2007;26:3050-3061.
81.
Pearn L, Fisher J, Burnett AK, Darley RL: The role of PKC and PDK1 in monocyte lineage specification by Ras. Blood 2007;109:4461-4469.
82.
Gobert Gosse S, Bourgin C, Liu WQ, Garbay C, Mouchiroud G: M-CSF stimulated differentiation requires persistent MEK activity and MAPK phosphorylation independent of Grb2-Sos association and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. Cell Signal 2005;17:1352-1362.
83.
Richardson ET, Shukla S, Nagy N, Boom WH, Beck RC, Zhou L, Landreth GE, Harding CV: ERK signaling is essential for macrophage development. PLoS One 2015;10:e0140064.
84.
Kubota Y, Angelotti T, Niederfellner G, Herbst R, Ullrich A: Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is necessary for differentiation of FDC-P1 cells following stimulation of type III receptor tyrosine kinases. Cell Growth Differ 1998;9:247-256.
85.
Xie S, Chen M, Yan B, He X, Chen X, Li D: Identification of a role for the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in innate immune cells. PLoS One 2014;9:e94496.
86.
Cooper SL, Arceci RJ, Gamper CJ, Teachey DT, Schafer ES: Successful treatment of recurrent autoimmune cytopenias in the context of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy using sirolimus. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016;63:358-360.
87.
Zheng M, Bi R, Li W, Landeck L, Chen JQ, Lao LM, Cai SQ, Yao YG, Man XY: Generalized pure cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease: a link between inflammation and cancer not associated with mitochondrial DNA and SLC29A3 gene mutation? Discov Med 2013;16:193-200.
88.
Mahnke K, Bhardwaj R, Sorg C: Heterodimers of the calcium-binding proteins MRP8 and MRP14 are expressed on the surface of human monocytes upon adherence to fibronectin and collagen. Relation to TNF-α, IL-6, and superoxide production. J Leukoc Biol 1995;57:63-71.
89.
Rammes A, Roth J, Goebeler M, Klempt M, Hartmann M, Sorg C: Myeloid-related protein (MRP) 8 and MRP14, calcium-binding proteins of the S100 family, are secreted by activated monocytes via a novel, tubulin-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem 1997;272:9496-9502.
90.
Timm T, Balusamy K, Li X, Biernat J, Mandelkow E, Mandelkow EM: Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β directly phosphorylates serine 212 in the regulatory loop and inhibits microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK) 2. J Biol Chem 2008;283:18873-18882.
91.
Kim H, Strong TV, Anderson SJ: Evidence for tau expression in cells of monocyte lineage and its in vitro phosphorylation by v-fms kinase. Oncogene 1991;6:1085-1087.
92.
Tanaka T, Kishimoto T: The biology and medical implications of interleukin-6. Cancer Immunol Res 2014;2:288-294.
93.
Liu L, Perry AM, Cao W, Smith LM, Hsi ED, Liu X, Mo JQ, Dotlic S, Mosunjac M, Talmon G, Weisenburger DD, Fu K: Relationship between Rosai-Dorfman disease and IgG4-related disease: study of 32 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 2013;140:395-402.
94.
Chomarat P, Banchereau J, Davoust J, Palucka AK: IL-6 switches the differentiation of monocytes from dendritic cells to macrophages. Nat Immunol 2000;1:510-514.
95.
Kaplanski G, Marin V, Montero-Julian F, Mantovani A, Farnarier C: IL-6: a regulator of the transition from neutrophil to monocyte recruitment during inflammation. Trends Immunol 2003;24:25-29.
96.
Zarbock A, Ley K, McEver RP, Hidalgo A: Leukocyte ligands for endothelial selectins: specialized glycoconjugates that mediate rolling and signaling under flow. Blood 2011;118:6743-6751.
97.
Vigetti D, Genasetti A, Karousou E, Viola M, Moretto P, Clerici M, Deleonibus S, De Luca G, Hascall VC, Passi A: Proinflammatory cytokines induce hyaluronan synthesis and monocyte adhesion in human endothelial cells through hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. J Biol Chem 2010;285:24639-24645.
98.
Levesque MC, Haynes BF: Cytokine induction of the ability of human monocyte CD44 to bind hyaluronan is mediated primarily by TNF-α and is inhibited by IL-4 and IL-13. J Immunol 1997;159:6184-6194.
99.
Riva M, He Z, Källberg E, Ivars F, Leanderson T: Human S100A9 protein is stabilized by inflammatory stimuli via the formation of proteolytically-resistant homodimers. PLoS One 2013;8:e61832.
100.
Vogl T, Tenbrock K, Ludwig S, Leukert N, Ehrhardt C, van Zoelen MA, Nacken W, Foell D, van der Poll T, Sorg C, Roth J: Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous activators of Toll-like receptor 4, promoting lethal, endotoxin-induced shock. Nat Med 2007;13:1042-1049.
101.
Li T, Morgan MJ, Choksi S, Zhang Y, Kim YS, Liu ZG: MicroRNAs modulate the noncanonical transcription factor NF-κB pathway by regulating expression of the kinase IKKα during macrophage differentiation. Nat Immunol 2010;11:799-805.
102.
Riva M, Källberg E, Björk P, Hancz D, Vogl T, Roth J, Ivars F, Leanderson T: Induction of nuclear factor-κB responses by the S100A9 protein is Toll-like receptor-4-dependent. Immunology 2012;137:172-182.
103.
Bhardwaj RS, Zotz C, Zwadlo-Klarwasser G, Roth J, Goebeler M, Mahnke K, Falk M, Meinardus-Hager G, Sorg C: The calcium-binding proteins MRP8 and MRP14 form a membrane-associated heterodimer in a subset of monocytes/macrophages present in acute but absent in chronic inflammatory lesions. Eur J Immunol 1992;22:1891-1897.
104.
Sunahori K, Yamamura M, Yamana J, Takasugi K, Kawashima M, Yamamoto H, Chazin WJ, Nakatani Y, Yui S, Makino H: The S100A8/A9 heterodimer amplifies proinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages via activation of nuclear factor kappa B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2006;8:R69.
105.
Colmenero I, Molho-Pessach V, Torrelo A, Zlotogorski A, Requena L: Emperipolesis: an additional common histopathologic finding in H syndrome and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Am J Dermatopathol 2012;34:315-320.
106.
Hsu CL, Lin W, Seshasayee D, Chen YH, Ding X, Lin Z, Suto E, Huang Z, Lee WP, Park H, Xu M, Sun M, Rangell L, Lutman JL, Ulufatu S, Stefanich E, Chalouni C, Sagolla M, Diehl L, Fielder P, Dean B, Balazs M, Martin F: Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 deficiency perturbs lysosome function and macrophage homeostasis. Science 2012;335:89-92.
107.
Diamond EL, Durham BH, Haroche J, Yao Z, Ma J, Parikh SA, Wang Z, Choi J, Kim E, Cohen-Aubart F, Lee SC, Gao Y, Micol JB, Campbell P, Walsh MP, Sylvester B, Dolgalev I, Aminova O, Heguy A, Zappile P, Nakitandwe J, Ganzel C, Dalton JD, Ellison DW, Estrada-Veras J, Lacouture M, Gahl WA, Stephens PJ, Miller VA, Ross JS, Ali SM, Briggs SR, Fasan O, Block J, Héritier S, Donadieu J, Solit DB, Hyman DM, Baselga J, Janku F, Taylor BS, Park CY, Amoura Z, Dogan A, Emile JF, Rosen N, Gruber TA, Abdel-Wahab O: Diverse and targetable kinase alterations drive histiocytic neoplasms. Cancer Discov 2016;6:154-165.
108.
Shanmugam V, Margolskee E, Kluk M, Giorgadze T, Orazi A: Rosai-Dorfman disease harboring an activating KRAS K117N missense mutation. Head Neck Pathol 2016;10:394-399.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.