Introduction: Perianal abscess may develop during neutropenia periods in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The standard of care for perianal abscess in AML is unclear. Methods: We retrospectively collected patient data in our institute from 2009 to 2012. Results: Two hundred ninety-two patients with AML were analyzed. In total, 1,051 chemotherapy sessions were administered. Twenty-three patients experienced perianal abscess. Patients with perianal abscess were younger than those without (44 vs. 60 years, p < 0.0001). Perianal abscess developed in various phases of treatment and in the stem cell transplantation period. Twelve recurrences developed in 6 patients. Patients with a prior perianal abscess have a 10-fold risk of developing a subsequent abscess following further chemotherapy. The microbiology profile revealed that most pathogens were derived from the intestinal tracts, which was similar to the findings of previous studies. The 28-day mortality was 14.3% and the direct cause of death was not perianal abscess in any case. Surgical interventions had no impact on recurrence or survival. Conclusion: In patients with AML, perianal abscess results from gastrointestinal tract pathogens. Many patients do not require surgical interventions. The mortality is low but recurrence is common following subsequent chemotherapies. Therefore, awareness of recurrence is important for the timely management of perianal abscess in AML.

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