Background: The survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21) was reported to be shorter in China than in other countries. Patients: We analyzed the correlation between different cytarabine (Ara-c) regimens and outcome in 255 t(8;21) AML patients in China who received postremission consolidation chemotherapy only. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) of the high-dose Ara-c group (HDAC; 2≤ Ara-c ≤3 g/m2), intermediate-dose Ara-c group (MDAC; 1.0≤ Ara-c <2.0 g/m2), low-dose Ara-c group (LDAC; 0.2< Ara-c <1.0 g/m2) and standard-dose Ara-c group (SDAC; 0.1≤ Ara-c ≤0.2 g/m2) were 65.3, 39.4, 25.2 and 27.9%, respectively (p = 0.003). In the HDAC group, but not in the MDAC group, the 5-year OS of patients who achieved 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy was superior to those who underwent 1-2 cycles (84.4 vs. 43.6%, p < 0.05), and the 3-year OS of patients who achieved an accumulated 36 g/m2 of Ara-c was significantly higher compared to those who did not (85.3 vs. 39.2%, p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that factors such as WBC >3.5 × 109/l, PLT ≤30 × 109/l, and extramedullary infiltration were associated with a poor prognosis. Conclusion: The survival of t(8;21) AML patients treated with high-dose Ara-c (≥2 g/m2) was superior to other dose levels in postremission consolidation chemotherapy. Patient survival was improved by 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy with an accumulated concentration of 36 g/m2 of Ara-c. WBC >3.5 × 109/l, PLT ≤30 × 109/l and extramedullary infiltration could be indicative of a poor clinical prognosis.

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