We performed a study on allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) from an HLA-haplo-identical familial donor (haploFD) using a busulfan-fludarabine-antithymocyte globulin conditioning regimen for severe aplastic anemia (sAA) and hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome. For the comparison between a haploFD and an alternative donor (AD; matched unrelated or partially matched donor) for sAA in adults, we collected haploFD data retrospectively and prospectively. Forty-eight AD cases were selected for the comparison with 16 haploFD cases. All transplantation outcomes except for extensive chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) were similar. The frequencies of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (p = 1.000), acute GvHD (p = 0.769), grade 3/4 acute GvHD (p = 0.258), chronic GvHD (p = 0.173), extensive chronic GvHD (p = 0.099), primary neutrophil engraftment failure (p = 1.000), secondary graft failure (p = 1.000) and platelet engraftment failure (p = 0.505) were similar. Time to neutrophil engraftment was faster in haploFD (p = 0.003), while the cumulative incidence of platelet engraftment was similar (p = 0.505). Overall survival was also similar between AD and haploFD (p = 0.730). In conclusion, alloHCT from haploFD in sAA was comparable with alloHCT from AD, but extensive chronic GvHD seemed frequent in haploFD. Therefore alloHCT from haploFD could be an alternative approach for alloHCT from AD in adult sAA.

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