Lymphoproliferative disorders presenting simultaneously with or subsequent to the occurrence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have rarely been reported. Herein, we report 8 cases of a variety of lymphoproliferative conditions associated with CML at different times during the course of the disease. All 8 patients were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors at some point during the course of their illness. The literature regarding the uncommon association of these apparently unrelated disorders is reviewed as well as the possible underlying mechanisms that could be associated with this phenomenon.

Jabbour E, Kantarjian H: Chronic myeloid leukemia: 2014 update on diagnosis, monitoring, and management. Am J Hematol 2014;89:547-556.
Duman BB, Paydas S, Disel U, Besen A, Gurkan E: Secondary malignancy after imatinib therapy: eight cases and review of the literature. Leuk Lymphoma 2012;53:1706-1708.
Verma D, Kantarjian H, Strom SS, Rios MB, Jabbour E, Quintas-Cardama A, Verstovsek S, Ravandi F, O'Brien S, Cortes J: Malignancies occurring during therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and other hematologic malignancies. Blood 2011;118:4353-4358.
Roux C, Nicolini FE, Rea D, Niault M, Mollica L, Berger F, Chassagne-Clément C, Tigaud I, Tulliez M, Giraudier S, Turhan A, Rousselot P, Legros L: Reversible lymph node follicular hyperplasia associated with dasatinib treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. Blood 2013;122:3082-3084.
Ide M, Kuwahara N, Matsubishi E, Kimura S, Gondo H: Uncommon case of chronic myeloid leukemia with multiple myeloma. Int J Hematology 2010;91:699-704.
Klenn PJ, Hyun BH, Lee YH, Zheng WY: Multiple myeloma and chronic myelogenous leukemia: a case report and literature review. Yonsei Med J 1993;34:293-300.
Ragupathi L, Najfeld V, Chari A, Petersen B, Jagannath S, Mascarenhas J: A case report of chronic myelogenous leukemia in a patient with multiple myeloma and a review of the literature. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2013;13:175-179.
Michael M, Antoniades M, Lemesious E, Papaminas N, Melanthiou F: Development of multiple myeloma in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia while on treatment with imatinib mesylate for 65 months. Oncologist 2009;14:1198-1200.
Champlin RE, Golde DW: Chronic myelogenous leukemia: recent advances. Blood 1985;65:1039-1047.
Breitkopf SB, Yuan M, Pihan GA, Asara JM: Detection of a rare BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase fusion protein in H929 multiple myeloma cells using immunopreciptation (IP)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:16190-16195.
Rahman K, George S, Mangal S, Mehta A: Simultaneous occurrence of chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: report of an unusual case. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2013;56:453-456.
Katović SK, Vasilj A, Maricević I, Carzavec D, Jurić SC: Simultaneous occurrence of chronic lymphocytic and chronic myeloid leukemia. Coll Antropol 2010;34:653-655.
Esteve J, Cervantes F, Rives S, Rozman M, Zarco MA, Montserrat E: Simultaneous occurrence of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia with further evolution to lymphoid blast crisis. Haematologica 1997;82:596-599.
Whang-Peng J, Young RC, Lee EC, Longo DL, Schechter GP, DeVita VT Jr: Cytogenetic studies in patients with secondary leukemia/dysmyelopoietic syndrome after different treatment modalities. Blood 1988;71:403-414.
Zollino M, Genuardi M, Tanci P, Mango G, Rumi C, Mancini R, Neri G: Chronic myelogenous leukemia in the course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence for an independent clonal origin. Leuk Res 1991;15:269-273.
Maher VE, Gill L, Townes PL, Wallace JE, Savas L, Woda BA, Ansell JE: Simultaneous chronic lymphocytic leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia: evidence of a separate stem cell origin. Cancer 1993;71:1993-1997.
Mansat-De Mas V, Rigal-Huguet F, Cassar G, Kuhlein E, Laurent G, Dastugue N: Chronic myeloid leukemia associated with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence of two separate clones as shown by combined cell-sorting and fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Leuk Lymphoma 2003;44:867-869.
Blonk MC, van der Valk P, Beverstock GC, Ossenkoppele GJ: Sequential development of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in the course of CML. Cancer 1990;66:1198-1203.
Verhoef GE, Demuynck H, Stul MS, Cassiman JJ, Mecucci C, Van Den Berghe H, Boogaerts MA: Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in treated Hodgkin's disease. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1990;49:171-176.
Reeves JE, Robbins BA, Pankey LR, Elias AL, Anderson WF: The simultaneous occurrence of variant hairy cell leukemia and CML. A case report. Cancer 1995;75:2089-2092.
Ichinohasama R, Miura I, Takahashi N, Sugawara T, Tamate E, Endoh K, Endoh F, Naganuma H, DeCoteau JF, Griffin JD, Kadin ME, Ooya K: Ph-negative non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurring in chronic phase of Ph-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia I defined as a genetically different neoplasm from extramedullary localized blast crisis: report of two cases and review of the literature. Leukemia 2000;14:169-182.
Zamecnikova A, Vranovsky A, Hlavcak P: Coexistence of Philadelphia-positive chronic granulocytic leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at initial diagnosis. Leuk Lymphoma 2002;43:429-431.
Au WY, Ma SK, Wan TS, Wang EP, Lau TC, Kwong YL: Concurrent mediastinal B cell lymphoma and chronic myeloid leukemia with unusually favorable response to chemotherapy. Leuk Lymphoma 2003;44:535-538.
Rodler E, Welborn J, Hatcher S, Unger K, Larkin E, Gumerlock PH, Wun T, Richman C: Blastic mantle cell lymphoma developing concurrently in a patient with CML and a review of the literature. Am J Hematol 2004;75:231-238.
Orciuolo E, Fazzi R, Galimberti S, Testi C, Azzara' A, Carulli G, Petrini M: Chronic myeloid leukaemia and hairy cell leukemia coexisting in a single patient: difficulties at diagnosis and rational of the therapeutic strategy. Leuk Res 2006;30:349-353.
Breccia M, Martelli M, Cannella L, Russo E, Finolezzi E, Stefanizzi C, Levi A, Frustaci A, Alimena G: Rituximab associated to imatinib for coexisting therapy related chronic myeloid leukemia and relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Res 2008;32:353-355.
Ramanarayanan J, Dunford LM, Baer MR, Sait SN, Lawrence W, McCarthy PL: Chronic myeloid leukemia after treatment of lymphoid malignancies: response to imatinib mesylate and favorable outcomes in three patients. Leuk Res 2006;30:701-705.
Aguiar RC: Therapy-related chronic myeloid leukemia: an epidemiological, clinical and pathogenetic appraisal. Leuk Lymphoma 1998;29:17-26.
Nagata Y, Ohashi K, Fukuda S, Kamata N, Akiyama H, Sakamaki H: Clinical features of dasatinib-induced large granular lymphocytosis and pleural effusion. Int J Hematol 2010;91:799-807.
Mustjoki S, Ekblom M, Arstila TP, Dybedal I, Epling-Burnette PK, Guilhot F, Hjorth-Hansen H, Höglund M, Kovanen P, Laurinolli T, Liesveld J, Paquette R, Pinilla-Ibarz J, Rauhala A, Shah N, Simonsson B, Sinisalo M, Steegmann JL, Stenke L, Porkka K: Clonal expansion of T/NK-cells during tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib therapy. Leukemia 2009;23:1398-1405.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.