Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) comprises less than 1% of all malignant lymphomas. Because few studies of PBL have been conducted in Japan, the characteristics of Japanese patients with PBL have not been fully elucidated. We retrospectively analyzed 17 patients diagnosed with PBL at our institution between 2001 and 2011. Median patient age was 60 years. Eleven patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 2 patients had T-cell lymphoma histology. The spine was the most frequently involved site at the time of presentation. There were 11 patients with stage IV disease and 11 patients with high or high-intermediate risk according to the International Prognostic Index (IPI). Thirteen patients achieved complete response (CR) after initial treatment. At a median follow-up of 31 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression free survival were 63.5 and 49.9%, respectively. Localized disease, low or low-intermediate IPI, and CR after initial treatment were associated with a good outcome in patients with PBL and significantly associated with a better OS. Spine involvement and T/NK-cell phenotype are more frequent in Japanese than in Caucasian patients with PBL.