This study investigated the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with monosomal karyotypes (MK). A total of 114 AML patients who received allo-HCT were retrospectively analyzed. At the time of diagnosis, 13 patients were categorized with a favorable cytogenetic risk, 78 with an intermediate risk, and 23 with an adverse risk. MK was found in 12 patients among 23 with adverse cytogenetic risk. Pretransplant disease status was active disease in 5 cases (45.5%) in the adverse-risk without MK group, and 8 cases (66.7%) in the corresponding group with MK, 15 (19.2%) in the intermediate group and 4 (30.8%) in the favorable group. In multivariate analysis, active disease before transplant (hazard ratio, HR 3.913, p < 0.001), acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) ≥grade 2 (HR 1.908, p = 0.048) and chronic GVHD (HR 0.364, p = 0.001) affected overall survival (OS). The initial cytogenetic risk groups were not a significant risk factor for OS in allogeneic settings. The 2-year OS rate was 44.0 ± 15.9% without MK and 20.7 ± 17.9% with MK (p = 0.246). However, the OS rate was better for patients with chronic GVHD (p = 0.025). In conclusion, a survival benefit was observed for MK-positive patients with chronic GVHD in an allogeneic setting. However, the prognosis still remained poor for patients with MK. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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