In 2013, Nangalia et al. and Klampfl et al. found a recurrent and abundant mutation in the calreticulin gene (CALR), mutually exclusive with JAK2 and MPL alterations. At present, the data concerning the new mutation, i.e. its prevalence, allele burden and clinical significance, are scarce. We report the incidence and molecular characteristics of CALR mutations in a group of 184 Polish patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Clinical data analysis revealed significant differences between JAK2 V617F-mutated and CALR-mutated groups. In essential thrombocythemia patients, hemoglobin levels and leukocyte counts were significantly higher in JAK2-positive than in CALR-positive patients (p = 0.023 and p = 0.017, respectively), but the CALR-positive patients had significantly higher platelet counts (p = 0.022). Patients harboring CALR mutations were also younger at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.039). In primary myelofibrosis patients, the degree of anemia was less severe in those who were CALR exon 9 mutation-positive than in those who were JAK2 V617F-positive (p = 0.048). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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