Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) comprises a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell tumors with a poor prognosis; allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) may offer a potential way of cure for these patients though the optimal type and timing of transplantation remain to be defined. We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis examining the efficacy and safety of allo-SCT for PTCL. The pooled 3-year overall survival (OS) of PTCL patients treated with allo-SCT was 49.6% (95% confidence interval, CI: 41.7-57.5%). A meta-analysis of 3-year OS in allo-SCT and autologous SCT (auto-SCT) showed no statistical difference. The rates of pooled acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; grade 2/4) and chronic GVHD were 26.7% (95% CI: 21.4-32.9%) and 29.9% (95% CI: 24.3-36.1%), respectively. The pooled 100-day treatment-related mortality was 24.2% (95% CI: 17.2-33.0%). Of the total study patients (n = 299), 48.5% were reported dead after allo-hematopoietic SCT, with disease progression as the first cause of death in PTCL patients. Although most studies included were retrospective and their sample size was small, existing data suggested that the group of PTCL patients receiving allo-SCT was to a great degree homogeneous regarding OS, mortality without relapse, death rate and the incidence of GVHD. The most common cause of death was disease progression. The present data did not show a difference in OS between allo- and auto-SCT in PTCL patients, but large prospective studies are needed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of allo-SCT in the treatment of PTCL patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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