Impaired reproductive function and possible infertility are major concerns in long-term survivors of hematological malignancies. The ongoing increase in the survival rates of these patients is therefore accompanied with a growing demand for effective, safe and specifically tailored fertility preservation options. When approaching patients facing hematological malignancy, an individual evaluation of potential infertility risks and possible preventive or preserving measures should be performed. This review aims to provide up-to-date knowledge on female reproductive risks, and ovarian, uterine and genital injuries associated with therapy regimens currently used in hemato-oncological disorders. Recent progress in fertility preservation methods including ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation, egg and embryo freezing, ovarian transposition and their specific role in hematological disorders are presented. The efficacy of these methods, possible risks and future challenges are critically discussed.