Background: Sweet's syndrome (SS) is an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. It can occur as an idiopathic, drug-induced or malignancy-associated entity. SS is also seen in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) where it may present atypically, both clinically and histologically. In a few rare cases of MDS, lymphocytic infiltrates are the presenting feature of SS. Methods: MEDLINE and Scopus were the data sources for our review. Results: A clinicopathological subset emerged of 12 male SS patients with MDS and a mean age of 67.3 years in which the initial SS lesions were lymphocytic infiltrates. However, from 0.5 to 8 years later, sequential biopsies revealed neutrophilic dermal infiltration typical of SS. Conclusion: Initially lymphocytic infiltrates in this subset could be attributed either to an early timing of the biopsy concerning the age of the lesion or to the dysgranulopoiesis syndrome. A possible relationship between the dysfunction of the receptor of the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, the gene of which is located on the pseudoautosomal X-Y region, may exist in MDS patients with initially lymphocytic SS. This could explain the male gender of this subset and might establish initially lymphocytic SS as a distinguished clinicopathological entity for predicting the occurrence and even the prognosis of MDS.

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